Gansu Dunhuang Yadan National Geopark, commonly known as Dunhuang Yadan Devil City, is an important part of the Dunhuang World Geopark in China, and it is also one of the three most beautiful Yadans in China. Dunhuang Yadan landform is the largest, the most mature geological form development, the most ornamental value found in the world. The scenic spot is about 25km long from east to west and 18km wide from north to south, 810-970 m ~ 970 m above sea level, with an area of 398k ㎡. The Yadan landform scenic area is divided into two south, north two regions.
The location area of Dunhuang Yadan area
Dunhuang Yadan National Geopark is located in western Gansu Province, within Dunhuang City. Yadan is about 100 kilometers southeast from Yumen Pass, 20 kilometers south from the ancient Shule River in Haraqi Wetland, Kumtag Desert in the southwest, 7 kilometers west from Sanlong Sand in Ruoqiang County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and then connected to the southwest. The park is about 120 kilometers away from the center of Lop Nur Lake.
Landform of Dunhuang Yadan
The main landform types of Dunhuang Yadan are desert, gobi, Yadan and alkali soil plain. The terrain is inclined from east to west, the north area is concentrated Yadan landform, the overall trend is near north and south; the south area is dominated by wind erosion valley, wind erosion mound, wind erosion column, wind erosion column, wind erosion mushroom, swing stone, wind erosion depression, wind edge rock, which is relatively scattered. Yadan landform 20 is 20~100m high, wind erosion valley is 100~200m wide, rich shape, hard soil, light red, known as the "devil city", has a high tourism value.
Plant resources of Dunhuang Yadan
Yadan National Geopark is located in the desert area of the warm zone half shrub, shrub desert area. There are 168 species of seed plants, including two gymnosperms and 166 angiosperms. It belongs to 30 families, including ephedrine, willow and elm, and 105 genera. In the park, most of the ground is bare, and the park vegetation is limited to the southern and western parts of the Yadan lowlands.
Animal resources of Dunhuang Yadan
There are 196 species of wild animals in Dunhuang, including 141 birds, 32 mammals, 8 fish, 2 amphibians and 13 reptiles. Among them, there are 8 first-class protected animals and 33 second-class protected animals.
Dunhuang Yadan National Geopark has various types of geological relics, with a total of 77 geological relics sites, including four categories of landform landscape, geological structure, water landscape, and environmental geological relics landscape. Specific including flowing water landform landscape, wind landform landscape, desert landform landscape, lake landscape, geological disaster relics landscape. There are more than 5,000 large and small Yadan bodies in the park, greatly varying in length, height, direction and shape.
Geologic origin of Dunhuang Yadan
The formation and development of the Yadan landform went through a long process. There are two important factors for the formation of the Yadan landform. One is the geological basis for developing this landform, that is, there must be lake sedimentary strata; the other is external erosion, which is the strong directional wind erosion and water erosion in the desert. Under the erosion action of long-term wind, the lower part of the hill hill often suffers from strong denudation, and gradually forms a concave form. If the rock layer on the upper part of the hill is relatively loose, it is easy to collapse and form steep walls under the action of gravity, forming the Yadan landform.
Dunhuang World Geopark Yadan Scenic Attractions:
There are a variety of strange wind erosion landforms in the park, and the most famous representatives are:
Golden lion Welcome Guest
Yadan is the product of the development of Yadan landform. Due to the wind, rain, water flushing, the large Yadan body is eroded, along the cracks constantly collapse and gradually become smaller, forming a lion lying landscape. It seems to be watching and welcoming the tourists coming from afar.
Wall-shaped Yadan belongs to the transition type from wall-shaped Yadan body to tower-shaped Yadan body. Yadan body is composed of sandy and muddy sediment, and differential erosion and weathering form a uneven surface. From afar, it looks like the "Sphinx" in Egypt, which fully demonstrated the ingenuity of nature.
Pillar Yadan, belongs to the product of the columnar Yadan body late evolution. Due to the erosion of the surface of the Yadan body, the weak part gradually disappeared, retaining the relatively hard part, they constitute a form of lifelike, lifelike "peacock", is proud of the male, showing its beauty to people.
The West Sea Fleet
Ridge hill shape Yadan, distributed in the northwest of the scenic area, north and south intermittent extension up to thousands of kilometers, 5-30m wide. From afar, the grand scale of Yadan is like a majestic sailing fleet, in the vast desert sea split waves, magnificent. This large-scale concentrated ridge Yadan group is rare at home and abroad.
The Turtle Sealingin Sea
Deformed Yadan, due to the influence of nearby fault activities, makes one end of the original level layer turn up. After the formation process of Yadan landform, this deformed Yadan landscape appears. From afar, the deformation of the Yadan body like a turtle head to sea, proudly looking down the group.
Columnar Yadan, is typical of columnar Yadan. After the collapse along the fissure, the hard clay layer at the bottom has strong erosion resistance, while the soft sand layer in the middle is more seriously affected by wind erosion. The columnar Yadan body formed by the differential erosion looks like an ancient princess with a slender waist, graceful and elegant.
The castle of Yadan
Wall Yadan, is a large scale, a variety of types of Yadan landform. Under the geological action of gravity, wind, rain and other internal and external power, the upper part of the wall Yadan body is gradually shaped into towers and columns along the gap, but the lower part is still connected to each other, like a deep and quiet castle, solemn and solemnly standing in the vast wilderness.
Alien Yadan is the most unique columnar Yadan body. The upper clay layer is difficult to weathering, while the lower sandy layer is easy to weathering. This difference forms a large block on the top hanging on the lower part of the small column, in the form like the sky visitors overlooking meditation, attracting visitors to explore its mystery.
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